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A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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This is hundreds of years after the last Hurrian documents disappear, but Urartian is closer to Old Hurrian, rather than the later version of the language, so it is not a descendent of Hurrian.

Hurrian clitics stand for unique words, but are attached to other words as though they were suffixes. Another Hurrian dialect is likely represented in several texts from Ugarit, but they are so poorly preserved that little can be said about them, save that spelling patterns used elsewhere to grammzr Hurrian phonemes are virtually ignored in them.

In the cuneiform, as in the Latin transcription, geminated consonants are indicated by doubling the corresponding symbol, so Hurrkan the thirteenth century BC, invasions from the west by the Hittites and the south by the Assyrians brought the end of the Mitanni empire, which was divided between the two conquering powers.

It remains, however, when a consonant-initial pronoun is attached: The infinitive, which can also be found nominalised, is formed with the suffix -ummee. As with the noun, not all of these elements must be present in each verb form, and indeed some of them are mutually incompatible.

Hurrian language |

Position 5 may carry the suffix -imbu- 5 hurrixn unclear function or the ergative third-person plural suffix -it-which is only attested in Old Hurrian. Short consonants are written For example case markers more than one may be attached to a noun, and various grammatical markers are attached to a verb. The final vowel of the noun stem is dropped before an attached possessive pronoun, e. The potential form is also occasionally used to express a wish. For the subject of a transitive verb, however, the ergative case is used.

Transitivity and intransitivity are clearly indicated in the morphology; only transitive verbs take endings that agree with the person and number of their subject. The later Urartian grajmar is thought to be descended from the same parent language as Hurrian.

Hurrian also has several demonstrative pronouns: In the third person, when the suffix -wa occurs before the subject marker, it can be replaced by -maalso expressing the negative: Hurrian has only a small amount of adverbs.


Gram,ar the next grammr, the suffix of negation can occur; in transitive sentences, it is -wawhereas in intransitive and antipassive ones it is -kkV. The grxmmar Urartian is from ancient Assyrian, and is related to the Biblical name Ararat, as in the mountains of Ararat Genesis 8: After these endings come the vowel of transitivity.

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A grammar of the Hurrian language – Frederic William Bush – Google Books

The following table gives the tense, transitivity and negation markers:. Retrieved 2 December Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic…. The source language of similar sounding words is thus unconfirmable. Before the middle of the 2nd millennium bceparts of Hurrian garmmar were under the control of an Indo-Aryan ruling class, the Mitanniwhose name was incorrectly applied to the Hurrians by early researchers.

After the derivational suffix come those marking tense. However, in the Mari and Hattusha dialects, the suffix of transitivity -o does not merge with other endings. These show clearly the grammmar character of the city. While the absolutive pronoun clitics 10 attached to a noun are not necessarily connected to it syntactically, typically designating the object or intransitive subject of a nearby verb, the hurrrian plural pronoun clitic -lla can be used to signal the plural of the host noun in the absolutive.

Hurrian language

Hurrian has at its disposal several paradigms for constructing relative clauses. One of these, the equative casehas a different form in both of the main dialects. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or hugrian errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

It is irrelevant to the meaning of the sentence to which word in the sentence the enclitic pronoun is attached, so it is often attached either to the first phrase or to the verb.

Speiser element elides evidence examples express fact fasc force Foundation Lion Friedrich function genitive goal Goetze grammatical head noun Hittite Hurrian texts indicative mood interpretation intransitive jussive suffix labial fricative Laroche logical object Mane meaning Mittanni Letter morpheme names negative nihari Nippur nominal Nougayrol Nuzi Nuzu occurs Oen-iff-uO Old Akkadian orthography particle phoneme phrase plausibly position prepositional pronominal associatives pronominal suffix pronoun Purves relational suffixes represent root root-complement S-H Voc Semitic scribes semivowel sentence set of signs sibilant Speiser stative subject-action suggests syllabary syllabic tablet third person transitive verbs TuSratta Ugarit Ugaritic alphabetic Ugaritica Urartean voiced and voiceless word written z-signs zero-suffix form.


The third possibility is for both these markers to occur see example 16 below. There are also the relative pronouns iya and iye.

There is no difference between the form for transitive and intransitive verbs, there being agreement with the subject of the sentence.

Hurrian languageextinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least grammad latter years of the Hittite empire c. The distinction between singular and plural in the third person is provided by the suffix -twhich comes directly after the tense marker.

The eastern territory was gradually taken over by Assyria, which moved Hurrians out and huriran Assyrians in their place, but in the west, Hurrian cultic traditions and learning were preserved by the Hittites who introduced them into their capital at Hattusa in Anatolia.

In this process, the dependent modifiers of a noun share the noun’s case suffixes. By the late Bronze Age, Hurrian seems to have become extinct, except perhaps for remote mountainous areas east of the upper Tigris.

All Hurrian nouns end in a vowel. The table below outlines the possible forms:. Nonetheless, it is clear that these represent dialects of one language.

The resulting “morpheme chain” is as follows: Hurrian grrammar provided many verbal suffixes, which often changed the valency of the verb they modify. There was also a Hurrian-Akkadian creole, called Nuzispoken in the Mitanni provincial capital of Arrapha.

Other Hurrian texts have been found in the cities of Urkish Mardin region, c. The so-called essive case can convey the meaning “as” and a condition, but also to express direction, the aim of a demand, the transition from one condition to another, the direct object in antipassive constructions where the transitive subject receives the absolutive case instead of the ergativeand, in the variety of Nuzialso the dative. Short vowels are indicated by a simple CV-VC pairing.

The enclitic particles can be attached to any word in a sentence, but most often they are attached to the first phrase of the sentence or to the verb. There are also differences in morphology, some of which are mentioned in the course of the exposition below.