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The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. INSTRUCTIONS: Mark down the point value of each of these life events that has . History. In , psychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard. Rahe examined over patient’s medical records to determine whether stressful events cause. Their results were published as the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) [1] , now commonly known as the Holmes and Rahe Stress.

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The scale was also assessed against different populations within the USA African, Mexican and white American groups [ 6 ] rabe cross-culturally, comparing Japanese [ 7 ] and Malaysian [ 8 ] with American populations.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from ” https: The SRRS is surprisingly consistent despite the cross-cultural differences one would expect. Each one of the 43 stressful life events was awarded a Life Change Unit depending on how traumatic it was felt to be by a large sample of participants.

Most people experience major life events infrequently hence a better measure might look at the stresses and strains of daily life [ 10 ].

Journal of psychosomatic research, 11, Source The questionnaire is free to use and downloadable [ 1 ]. Malaysians exhibited different attitudes implying different stress at the same score.

Subsequent validation has supported the links between stress and illness.

Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. The social readjustment rating scale. Kanner et al were interested in investigating whether it is daily hassles, rather than major life events that are the most stressful. Patients holmew asked to tally a list of 43 life events based on a relative score. An opportunity sample of American participants, including 52 women and 48 men, all white, well-educated and middle class were asked to circle the events on both scales that they had experienced the previous month and rate each according to severity for the hassles and frequency for the uplifts.


This suggests weakness of the SRRS in certain areas, with different cultural group reactions to incentory life events.

Stress and Life Events

The higher the score, and the larger the weight of each event, the more likely the patient would become ill. The Holmes and Rahe stress scale is a list of 43 stressful life events that can contribute to illness. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Rahe carried out a study in testing the validity of the stress scale as a predictor of illness.

The reliability of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale: Questionnaire Reviews All Journals search input. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. A total value for stressful life holmees can be worked out by adding up the scores for each event experienced over a 12 month period.

Holmes and Rahe stress scale

A positive correlation of 0. The total score on the SRRS was recorded for each participant. Journal of Psychosomatic Research14 4 A modified scale has also been developed for non-adults. Sensitization ho,mes the UK Supreme Court. This page was last edited on 3 Novemberat Psychosocial predictors of illness behavior and failure in stressful training.

SRRS – Stressful Life Events and Daily Hassles | Simply Psychology

The questionnaire is free to use and downloadable [ 1 ]. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar.

The scale assumes that each stressor affects people the same way. Kanner et al has designed a Hassles Scale which consists of items, including concerns about losing things, traffic jams, arguments, disappointments, weight and physical appearance. Inpsychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe examined the medical records of over 5, medical patients as a way to determine whether stressful events might cause illnesses.


Although the scale was originally developed and validated on males, it provides useful results for both male and female subjects.

Email alerts New issue alert. Each loosely worded category can have a wide range of possible interpretations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. The researchers concluded that as Life Change Units were positively correlated with illness scores, experiencing life events increased the chances of stress-related health breakdown.

It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of behavioral medicine4 1 More events mean a higher score. Views Read Edit View history. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Uplifts had a positive effect on the stress levels of women, but not men.

Holmes–Rahe Stress Inventory | Occupational Medicine | Oxford Academic

To measure stress according to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, the number of “Life Change Units” that apply to events in the past year of an individual’s life are added and the final score will give a rough estimate of how stress affects health. Over the next six months, detailed records were kept of the sailors’ health. Subsequent validation supported the links between stress and illness [ 2 ]. Conclusion The SRRS is surprisingly consistent despite the cross-cultural differences one would expect.