HISTORY OF SULTAN SALAHUDDIN AYUBI IN URDU PDF

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He stationed his men dangerously close to the city, hoping for an early success. Because droughts and bad harvests hampered his commissariatSaladin agreed to a truce. A hand-to-hand fight ensued and the Zengids managed to plow Saladin’s left wing, driving it before him, when Saladin himself charged at the head of the Zengid guard.

Raymond of Tripoli denounced the truce but was compelled to accept after an Ayyubid raid on his territory in May and upon the appearance of Saladin’s naval fleet off salabuddin port hitory Tartus.

From there, they headed west to besiege the fortress of A’zaz on 15 May. Al-Zahir Dawud, whom Imad listed eighth, is recorded as being his twelfth son in a letter written by Saladin’s minister.

Saladin – Wikipedia

A’zaz capitulated on 21 June, and Saladin then hurried his forces to Aleppo krdu punish Gumushtigin. In Novemberhe set out upon a raid into Palestine; the Crusaders had recently forayed into the territory of Damascus, so Saladin saw the truce as no longer worth preserving. Saladin aimed to counter this propaganda by ending the siege, claiming that he was defending Islam from the Crusaders; his army returned to Hama to engage a Crusader force there.

He continued towards Aleppo, which still closed its gates to him, halting before the city. During his tenure as vizier, Saladin began to undermine the Fatimid establishment and, following al-Adid’s death inhe abolished the Fatimid Caliphate and realigned the country’s salahusdin with the SunniBaghdad -based Abbasid Caliphate.

Two emir s, including an old friend of Saladin, Izz al-Din Jurduk, welcomed and pledged their service to him. This army proceeded to raid the countryside, sack Ramla and Lodand dispersed themselves as sultzn as the Gates of Jerusalem. The Crusaders withdrew beforehand and Saladin proclaimed it “a victory opening usltan gates of men’s hearts”. Saladin saw that in order to acquire Syria, he either needed an invitation from as-Salih, or to warn him that potential anarchy could give rise to danger from the Crusaders.

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Tyreon the coast of modern-day Lebanonwas the last major Crusader city that was not captured by Muslim forces. Saladin also had other children who died before him, such as al-Mansur Hasan and Ahmad.

Saladin climbed the ranks of the Fatimid government by virtue of his military successes against Crusader assaults against its territory and his personal closeness to al-Adid. They intercepted Crusader reinforcements ayubj Karak and Shaubak along the Nablus road and took a number of prisoners. However, according to this version, after some bargaining, he was eventually accepted by the majority of the emirs.

The Zengid army’s camp, horses, baggage, tents and stores were seized by the Ayyubids. In The Divine Comedy he is mentioned as one of the virtuous non-Christians in limbo.

Afterward, in the spring ofNur ad-Din sent Saladin’s father to Egypt in compliance with Saladin’s request, as well as encouragement from the Baghdad -based Abbasid caliph, al-Mustanjidwho aimed to pressure Saladin in deposing his rival caliph, al-Adid.

The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Saladin captured Raynald and was personally responsible for his execution in retaliation for his attacks against Muslim caravans. Most Muslim historians claim that Saladin’s uncle, the governor of Hama, mediated a peace agreement between him and Sinan.

In return for a diploma granting him the city, Nur al-Din swore allegiance to Saladin, promising to follow him in every expedition in the war against the Crusaders, and repairing damage done to the city.

Seeing the execution of Raynald, he feared he would be next. On 21 May, he camped outside the city, positioning himself east of the Citadel of Aleppowhile his forces encircles the suburb of Banaqusa to the northeast and Bab Janan to the west.

Although positions were complicated by rival Muslim leaders, the bulk of the Syrian commanders supported Saladin because of his role in the Egyptian expedition, in which he gained a record of military qualifications.

Soon after, he defeated the Zengid army at the Battle of the Horns of Hama and was thereafter proclaimed the “Sultan of Egypt and Syria” by the Abbasid caliph al-Mustadi. Later in the year, a group of Egyptian soldiers and emirs attempted to assassinate Saladin, but having already known of their intentions thanks to his intelligence chief Ali ibn Safyan, he had the chief conspirator, Naji, Mu’tamin al-Khilafa—the civilian controller of the Fatimid Palace—arrested and killed.

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With this victory, Saladin decided to call in more troops from Egypt; he requested al-Adil to dispatch 1, horsemen. Although the Ayyubid dynasty that he founded would only outlive him by 57 years, the legacy of Saladin within the Arab World continues to this day. The people were watching her and weeping and I Ibn Shaddad was standing amongst them. When the Crusader force—reckoned to be the largest the kingdom ever produced from its own resources, but still outmatched by the Muslims—advanced, the Ayyubids unexpectedly moved down the stream of Ain Jalut.

After spending one night in Aleppo’s citadel, Saladin marched to Harim, near the Crusader-held Antioch. His death left Saladin with political independence and in a letter to as-Salih, he promised to “act as a sword” against his enemies and referred to the death of his father as an “earthquake shock”.

In the early summer ofNur ad-Din was mustering an army, sending summons to Mosul, Diyar Bakrand the Jazira in an apparent preparation of attack against Saladin’s Egypt.

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A siege was set, but the governor of Tell Khalid surrendered upon the arrival of Saladin himself on 17 May before a siege could take place. Not much is known of Saladin’s wives or slave-women. In the spring ofhe was encamped under the walls of Homs, and a salanuddin skirmishes occurred between his generals and the Crusader army. InAyyub and his utdu moved to Mosul, where Imad ad-Din Zengi acknowledged his debt and appointed Ayyub commander of his fortress in Baalbek.

In JulySaladin captured most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.