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The Semitic languages /​ edited by Robert Hetzron. Other Authors. Hetzron, Robert. Published. New York: Routledge, Content Types. text. Carrier Types. : The Semitic Languages (Routledge Language Family Series) ( ): Robert Hetzron: Books. THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST. ROBERT HETZRON (ed.): The Semitic languages. xx, pp. London: Routledge, ? Nildeke to Goldziher (7/8/ ).

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The Semitic Lan- guges London: Tags What are tags? In a few modern Arabic dialects, e. For example, within the Slavic family, there are some innovations semitif are common to West and South Slavic to the exclusion of East Slavicand other innovations that are common to West Slavic and East Slavic.

Related resource Publisher description at http: Contact between the languages, and the changes this has brought about, is better depicted in a wave model. Introduction Alnguages internal subgrouping of the Semitic language family has been debated almost since the systematic linguistic study of the family began in the 19th century.

Robert Hetzron (ed.): The Semitic Languages | Aethiopica

Models of Classification of the Semitic Languages that volume makes the following comments: Additional features can be found in Huehnergard The family tree as expounded in Section 4, above, does seem to be a reliable model of the genetic relationship of the Semitic languages, but it does not accurately depict the history of contact among all of the languages.

One looks in vain for any vestiges of the old yaqattal form in any of the Central Semitic languages. The Ethiopian Semitic languages are part of a linguistic area which includes a number of non-Semitic Cushitic and Omotic languages cf. We have tried to demonstrate in this chapter that by integrating the family tree and wave models of language classification, we can account for the seeming discrepancies in the modified Hetzronian scheme.

In this view, which was based as much on the ancient location of the languages as on shared linguistic features, there exist three main sub-families within Semitic see Figure 9. The Arabic Grammatical Tradition. We would propose, in fact, that such vestiges may serve as a heuristic criterion for determining whether a feature is due to some factor other than genetic inheritance: The same form is also rarely attested in early Akkadian, but its use there seems to be quite different; again, no such form is attested in either Ethiopian Semitic or the Mod- ern South Arabian languages.


In addition to the imperfective yaqtulu, there is a modal form yaqtula, attested as a subjunctive in Arabic, and as an injunctive in Ugaritic, in Amarna Canaanite, and in Hebrew, where it has become restricted to first-person forms and is known as the cohortative. The noted Indo-Europeanist C. Comments and reviews What are comments?

The Semitic Languages in Russian. The speech forms that did not participate in this innovation are labeled East Semitic, and comprise only Akkadian and Eblaite for other innovations shared by Akkadian and Eblaite, see Huehnergard ; Rubio b; ch. Indeed, in a recent article on the comparative method, W.

Open to the public Held. Additional features are discussed in Huehnergard Contributors who publish with this journal agree to the following license and copyright agreement:. Also available in print at the Harrassowitz Publishing House. Thus the t-forms in Ethiopic and in Arabic share a common derivational meaning, namely, that of association or reciprocity.

It should be clear that there are innovations which support the idea that Central Semitic is a genetic family, areal phenomena that stem from the fact that the Central Semitic languages had prolonged contact subse- quent to their split from each other, and areal phenomena that support a South Semitic linguistic area.

Those who group Arabic with South east Semitic Blau, Diem argue that the first five features represent convergence or diffusion, while the last three are shared innovations.

The Semitic languages / edited by Robert Hetzron. – Version details – Trove

Language in Language London: When languages are close enough geographically to share features through such borrowing or diffusion, they sometimes form what are termed linguistic areas or areal groupings. Scripts of Semitic Languages.

The content of the manuscript is completely free from copyright violation. Only by integrating the two models of language change, the family tree model and the wave model, can we explain the rela- tionships among the Semitic language.

Accade- mia Nazionale dei Lincei vol. The features Arabic shares with Northwest Semitic include: Further, there are vestiges of these triphthongs in the other languages as well. To include a comma in your tag, surround the tag with double quotes.


It is the subgrouping of languages within West Semitic on which Hetzron deviates from the earlier model. One of the major pursuits of science has always been classification.

There seems to be almost as many approaches to classification as there are scholars who work on the problem, some of them markedly different in methodology and conclusions for some history of the issue, cf.

Robert Hetzron (ed.): The Semitic Languages

But only rarely, if ever, is there a complete break between two dialect groups; speakers of diverging forms of a language normally remain in some type of contact, at least at first. Canaanite Aramaic Arabic Sayhadic. Common West Semitic retained the internal plurals, which would also have been a feature inherited by Proto- Central Semitic; it is even possible that Common West Semitic expanded the Proto- Semitic system of internal plurals.

Open to the public Book; Illustrated English Unknown languwges code: One possibility is to begin by attempting to identify patterns which are most clearly the results of diffusion and attempting to distinguish these from patterns which are most clearly the result of a shared innovative inheritance. Outline of a Comparative Grammar.

Robert Hetzron

The traditional grouping of the Semitic languages tended to be based more on cultural and geographical than linguistic features. For these languages share an entire tense-mood-aspect system, with only relatively minor differences which can be attributed to later developments within the individual languages.

After some treatment of the usefulness of our models of classification, we will focus on some specific linguistic features that are relevant to the topic. This point is highlighted by the fact that F.

Thus, the formation of plurals by pattern replacement must be reconstructed for Proto-Se- mitic and, indeed, probably goes back to Afroasiatic cf. These 11 locations in All: However, the work will not be altered or transformed.