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He tenido en cuenta esta necesidad en varias ocasiones, así también con respecto a las Glosas Emilianenses (Hamburg, , versión española Sevilla, ). The Glosas Emilianenses are several different kinds of glosses added to selected parts of a 10th-century manuscript from the region of La Rioja in Northern. Record Number: of Title: Glosas Emilianenses. Description: The website for the ‘Glosas Emilianenses’ offers a wide selection of scholarly works.

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There is no apparent reason why signa in one case should be tagged nominative and in another accusative.

Glosas Emilianenses

There are features among the grammatical glosses that indicate their not having to do with learning Latin. The gloss nos emiliannses miserabiliores indicates that the pronoun is not there to explain the number or person, but rather was to be added. Some of these glosses are seen as very early instances of written Ibero-Romance; however, there are also numerous non-lexical glosses in the manuscript.

V, [u] [ ]. These glosses have been thought to convey syntactic or grammatical information on the language in the base text. Retrieved from ” https: The form signa may be both accusative and nominative, nevertheless, the glossing in 3 and 4 indicates the exact opposite of what the respective syntactic function of signa is originally.

This page was last edited on 6 Januaryat The other aspect is connected to the relative complexity of the glosses; I show that certain glosses are dependent on the indicated changes in the word order before they make sense. This example is the opposite of what we saw above; the position of the gloss is not connected to the word in the base text, but to the position of that word in the text after it has been changed by the sequential glosses.

Earliest known manuscripts by language Spanish manuscripts Spanish literature Spanish language Basque language Riojan culture History of the Spanish language. A similar example is found on f27r: On the other hand, the stylistic modifications, by some scholars seen as explanatory, seem to be prompted by other mechanisms than understanding.

I argue that this complexity entails that the glosses could not have been meant for use in real time, for instance while reading aloud. Facanos Deus Omnipotes tal serbitio fere ke denante ela sua face gaudioso segamus. The glosses presuppose that their user would see them, analyse them and have sufficient time to perform the changes, as a scribe would be expected to have.


Los primeros textos que se conservan en castellano datan del siglo XI, son las Glosas Emilianenses y Silenses.

This supposed Latin teacher had no problem overlooking that the verb was in the passive, and that canonical passives cannot allow direct objects, but he insisted on g,osas between subject and verb. The most common changes are moving the verb to initial position on sentence level VSO is obtained in practically all the main declarative sentencesand moving the determinative before its noun on phrase level.

There are three main types of glosses in the manuscript: These glosses were not intended to explain the text. They mainly consist of the Latin relative or interrogative pronoun qui in some of its forms and in combination with prepositions or a subtype of the lexical glosses the supplementary meilianenses, see below.

Detalle Glosas Emilianenses – Picture of Monasterio de Yuso, San Millan de la Cogolla

Furthermore, the complexities may suggest that the glossator most probably was the same person as the intended scribe; he intended to use these indications himself when copying the texts. Views Read Edit View history. I suggested a third hypothesis in Hagemannwhich to a greater degree accounts for the contradicting aspects of the Glosas Emilianenses. The fact that the noun signa is identical in both cases nominative and accusative may have contributed to the freedom the glossator exhibits, but it is highly unlikely that he did not know that a subject is nominative or that an object is accusative.

The first type, as the name reveals, consists of synonyms to a word in the base text. Since they are synonyms of words already present in the text, they are probably meant as either substitutions or repetitions.

Plan Emlianenses [link] Stylistic changes [link] Interdependency among the glosses gposas Concluding remarks [link] Bibliography [link]. Both hypotheses fail to account for all aspects of the glossed texts. This conditionality entails that the user of these glosses needed time to analyse them and put them to use, which in turn excludes their being used directly, for instance as aids when reading aloud.

It also indicates that Latin grammar, as we understand it, is not the chief concern of the glossator.

The glosses are unconvincing as a method to learn Latin. These marginalia are important as early examples of writing in a form of Romance similar to Spanishand in Basque.


Glosas Emilianenses – Wikisource

However, I have shown that the complexity of the glosses suggest that the performance would not be done directly using the glossed manuscript. Students trying to learn Latin synthetic passives would be gravely deceived by their master in these cases, how were they to learn that these forms were passive? It is difficult to imagine that the syntax in these texts would cause problems for the average student. Even so, the glosses turn the plural subject into an object of a Latin plural verb that does not allow objects.

Second, there are some changes or additions to the base text that are superfluous glsoas a grammatical or didactic point of view. The o makes perfect sense when the a-marked word is moved, and suggests that the text was not intended to be used as it is for reading emilianensees silently or aloud.

The first gloss qui antechristus may have been added for the purpose of understanding: If we were to identify the student who would benefit from these glosses, we would first need to explain why he would need the pronoun.

Stylistic preferences which overrule syntactic considerations are a clear indication that grammar is not the main concern.

This fact strongly suggests an endeavour connected to changing and improving the text, and support the hypothesis that the glosses are adaptations of the texts to contemporary needs. Lingua Patrum 5, Turnhout, p. I show that there are great many examples that do not fall into such a category; rather, some glosses appear to be stylistic changes to the text.

This last possibility might apply to 2 as well after the glosses emilianenss worked, but not for 3 post-glosses ; despite the passive form, multiplicauitur must be interpreted as a transitive active verb. This hypothesis argues that the totality of glosses may be indications meant for a scribe on how to copy the texts anew.

For someone who wanted to explain Latin or translate or read the text, the marking of deo and uos with the pronoun nos would be strange. Ylosas examples of the stylistic inclination of the glossator are to be found among the many redundant additions, at least from a grammatical point of view. Two other glosses, ego lebantai and ke pugnam, above respectively suscitabi and.