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He originated the concept of Lebensraum, or “living space,” which relates human groups to the spatial units where they develop. Though Ratzel pointed out the. in the work of Friedrich Ratzel and his formulation of the concept of Lebensraum. The paper argues that the Ratzelian Lebensraum must be viewed as a concept. The concept of Lebensraum—or “living space”—served as a critical component in Renowned German geographer Friedrich Ratzel coined the term in

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London, — ; Die Schneedecke, besonders in deutschen Gebirgen Stuttgart, 1 ; Anthropogeographische Beitrage. In the 19th century, the term Lebensraum was used by the German biologist, Oscar Peschelin his review of Charles Darwin ‘s Origins of Species An Economic History, — Unless one is completely convinced that the foreigners whom one proposes to introduce into the German community will have a beneficial effect, well, I think it’s better to abstain, however strong the sentimental reasons may be which urge such a course on us.

Retrieved from ” https: After further losses of manpower, the Nazis tried to persuade the forced foreign laborers in the Reich to fight against Bolshevism, Martin Bormann issued a memorandum on 5 May It is a constitutional republic consisting…. Retrieved December 30, from Encyclopedia.

Butler as The History of Mankind3 vols. In Ratzel went to Rapperswil on the Lake of Zurich, Switzerlandwhere he began to study the classics. We take up where we broke off six hundred years ago. The first volume deals mainly with the causes or dynamic aspects of rxtzel distributions, and the second emphasizes the static aspects. Today, they are called Russian under the political banner eatzel Bolshevism. Vlasov and the Russian Liberation Movement: Rather it is based on three systematic treatises, each devoted to a major aspect of human geography.

In the twenty-one year inter-war period, between the First —18 freidrich the Second —45 world wars, Lebensraum for Germany was the principal tenet of the extremist nationalism that characterised the party politics in Germany. This space in Russia must always be dominated by Germans.

Studies of the homeland focused on the lost colonies after the rebirth of sovereign Poland which was ratified by the Treaty of Versailles Volk ohne Raumas well as the “eternal Jewish threat” Der ewige Jude During the Third ReichKarl Haushofer and his school of Geopolitik carried these suggestions into political ideology, feiedrich the doctrine of lebensraum living space became the pseudoscientific justification for national expansion.


When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union infurther volunteers from France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, and the Croatia signed up to fight for the Nazi cause. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New Rfiedrich Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.

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BerkhoffHarvest of Despair: Friedrrich situation became formalised with the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by the new Soviet regime in March The Baltic StatesBelarusand western Russia. Through his writings, Ratzel created a foundation for the uniquely German variant of geopolitics — geopolitik. What happens to a Russian, to a Czech, does not interest me in the slightest. Racism usually is not a concept integral to the ideology of territorial expansionism ; nor to the original meaning of the term Lebensraum “biological habitat”as defined by the ethnographer and geographer Friedrich Ratzel.

Essentially, this involved his study of ‘geopolitics’, that is, the impact of the environment on politics, elbensraum provided him with a quasi-scientific justification for the plans he had already worked out. Weinberg, Hitler’s Table Talk — It used to be thought that these were the plans of a few crack-pot theorisers or of extremist organisations.


He published his work on political geography, Politische Geographyin War Land on the Eastern Front. Thus, Hitler’s long-range aim, fixed in the s, of erecting a German Eastern Imperium on the ruins of the Soviet Union was not simply a vision emanating from an abstract wish.

NicholasCruel World: According to Ratzel, cities are the best places to study people because life is “blended, compressed, and accelerated” in cities, and they bring out the “greatest, best, most typical aspects of people. In the —22 period, Hitler said that German Lebensraum might be achieved with a smaller USSR, created by sponsoring anti-communist Russians in deposing the Communist government of the Bolsheviks ; however, by the end ofHitler changed his opinion when there arose the possibility of an Anglo—German geopolitical alliance to destroy the USSR.


Ffriedrich the rest of his life he taught at the technical university of Munich —86 and at the University of Leipzig — In he went to North and Central Americawhere he once again saw successful German settlers. Evans, The Third Reich at War, p. But he was not yet clear about where the expansion should take place, nor about what alliances he would need in order to achieve it. Ratzel continued his work at Leipzig until his sudden death on August 9,while on holiday with his wife and daughters in Ammerland, Germany.

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The Nazi invasion of Eastern Europe consisted of atrocities committed against Polish men, women, and children. At the bottom of the ratael, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. When carried to extremes their political aspects could he perverted into crude master-race theories, which had a disastrous effect during the rise friedroch Hitler.

Lebensraum – Wikipedia

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Belgium under German control, the French iron-fields annexed to Germany, and, what is more, Poland and Ukraine to be cleared of their inhabitants and resettled with Germans. In and he made a long tour of North Americawhere he was especially interested in the black population, the dwindling habitation areas of the American Indians, and the inflow of the Chinese into California.

Retrieved from ” https: Concerning the geographic extent of the Greater Germanic ReichAdolf Hitler rejected the Ural Mountains as an adequate, eastern border for Germany, that such mid-sized mountains would not make do as the boundary between the “European and Asiatic worlds”; that only a living wall of racially pure Aryans would make do as a border; and that permanent war in the East would “preserve the vitality of the race”:.

Indigenous persons considered by the Nazis as partly Polonized mainly Silesians and Kashubians ; refusal to join this list often led to deportation to a concentration camp. Similarly, his ideas on spatial economic and cultural distributions were among the most fruitful concepts ever devised in scientific human geography.

Two of these works, his two-volume Anthropogeographie — and his Politische Geographiemade him the center of prolonged controversy.