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Austempered ductile iron castings, (or ADI castings) are ductile iron castings processed by a special heat treatment. The austempering process results in ductile. Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) represents an alternative solution for the manufacturing of the housing of small planetary gearboxes, with the gear teeth obtained. Heat treated Ductile Iron with austenitic-ferritic matrix (ADI) has a high potential for the substitution of forged steel and conventional Ductile Iron. Advantages of.

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ADI offers this superior combination of properties because it can be cast like any other member of the Ductile Iron family, thus offering all the production advantages of a conventional Ductile Iron casting. Both microstructures may also be produced via other methods. Inthe Cummins Engine Co. When determining the alloying requirements both the section size and type and the severity or speed of the austempering quench must be considered. Essentially free of carbides, porosity and inclusions.

ADI is a group of materials whose mechanical properties can be varied over a wide range by a suitable choice of heat treatment. Carbon should be controlled within the range 3.

In some patented processes the parts are quenched just below the Martensite start so that the resulting microstructure is a controlled mixture of Martensite and Bainite. Views Read Edit View history. Fillet rolling has been used very effectively to offset reductions in fatigue life produced by stress concentrations at changes in cross section in castings such as crankshafts and gear clusters see Table 3.

High austenitizing temperatures increase the carbon content of the austenite, increasing its hardenability, but making transformation during austempering more problematic and potentially reducing mechanical properties after austempering. The decision came after nine years of development work and six years of field testing.

Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) – Applied Process

The austempering process determines the properties after austempering; not the alloying. When a combination of high strength and abrasion resistance are required, an austempering temperature of F C will yield the best results. ADI is produced by an isothermal heat treatment known as austempering. This article needs additional citations for verification. In other words, as the austempering austemperijg is incrementally decreased below F C the material behaves increasingly like a quenched and tempered Ductile Iron.


This table also compares the ratio of K 1C to yield strength for these materials. At the highest austempering temperature F C as little as 30 minutes may be austemperring to produce ausferrite.

The austempering treatment used to produce ADI can result in austemperjng residual tensile surface stresses. The data shown represent 18 months of foundry production and over heat treat lots.

These grades of ADI also respond well to the surface strain transformation previously discussed which greatly increases their bending fatigue strength. ADI crawler type track shoe.

Shot peening offers a controllable means of selectively hardening certain parts of a finished casting to produce significant improvements in fatigue properties. Currently, austempered steel is also used in bearings, mower blades, transmission gear, wave plate, and turf aeration tines.

As shown in Table 4. Next, the parts are soaked at a time sufficient to uastempering complete austenitization. As a result, a Ductile Iron component austempered to produce a lower hardness displays an abrasion resistance greater than that predicted by its bulk hardness, provided that the abrasion mechanism involves sufficient deformation to transform the surface layers to martensite.

Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

The specific cooling rate that is necessary to avoid the formation of pearlite is a product of the chemistry of the austenite phase and thus the alloy being processed. The production of a high quality casting is essential but, by itself, not a sufficient condition to ensure optimum properties in ADI.

Varahram, “Austempered Ductile Iron: During this part of the process, the austenite isothermally transforms to bainite. History of ferrous metallurgy List of steel producers.

Typical austempering process parameters applied to an unsuitable material will not result in the formation of bainite or ausferrite and thus the final product will not be called austempered.


For example from Figure 4. This deterioration in properties is probably caused by the segregation of molybdenum to cell boundaries and the formation of carbides. Fracture Toughness Traditionally, components have been designed on the basis of preventing failure by plastic austemlering. Gear Research Institute tests show that roll burnishing of a peened gear with a carburized steel mate produced a six-fold increase in fatigue life.

The two important aspects of quenching are the cooling rate and the holding time. Defense The defense industry has been relatively slow to adopt ADI, however some of the applications include track links, armor, ordnance and various hardware for trucks and armored vehicles.

It concluded that “the comparison of toughness of ADI and steels, should not be based on the impact energy measurements. As of this writing ADI crankshafts are employed in high volume commercial applications and low volume automotive applications. auustempering

Austempering – Wikipedia

Austempering is fully effective only when the cooling rate of the quenching apparatus is sufficient for the section size and hardenability of the component. The sum total of these facts leads to a real advantage with regard to distortion of the final product when austempering is compared to a traditional quench and temper process.

The basic steps are the same whether applied to cast iron or steel and are as follows:.

Automotive design engineers have evaluated ADI as a candidate for both the replacement of forged steel crankshafts and the upgrading of existing Ductile Iron crankshafts. These gears were machined and hobbed from annealed Ductile Auatempering castings. ADI castings should, therefore, be produced free from surface defects, and with the following microstructural parameters.